Ronaldo helped Real Madrid to a second consecutive Champions League title and finished as the tournament's top scorer with 12 goals earlier this year.
Messi and Neymar claimed the Spanish King's Cup with Barcelona with the former finishing as La Liga's top scorer with 37 goals last season.
Juventus captain Gianluigi Buffon was shortlisted for the Best FIFA Goalkeeper award after leading the Italian club to a sixth successive Serie A title, a third-straight Italian Cup success and a runner-up finish in the Champions League.
He was joined by Real Madrid shot-stopper Keylor Navas and Bayern Munich's Manuel Neuer.
Real Madrid manager Zinedine Zidane, Chelsea's Antonio Conte and Juventus boss Massimiliano Allegri were on the shortlist for the Best FIFA Men's Coach award.
The women's player of the year award will be contested between Venezuelan striker Deyna Castellanos, American midfielder Carli Lloyd, and Leike Martens, who helped Netherlands to the Euro 2017 title.
The awards ceremony will take place in London on October 23rd.
Photo: PHOTOSPORT Lionel Messi wins 2015 Ballon d'Or.