The International Cricket Council (ICC) said in a statement that Shah tested positive for chlortalidone last month, a diuretic drug which features in the World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited substances.
"The sample Yasir provided in an in-competition test, which was conducted on 13 November 2015, was found to contain the presence of chlortalidone..." the governing body said in a statement.
Chlortalidone is a diuretic drug which features in the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) list of prohibited substances.
"In accordance with the ICC Anti-Doping Code, pending the outcome of the disciplinary process, Yasir has been provisionally suspended," the ICC added.
The 29-year-old was the second player from the subcontinent to be provisionally suspended for a doping violation recently. Sri Lanka wicketkeeper-batsman Kusal Perera faces a four-year ban after his 'B' sample tested positive for a banned substance.
Shah's sample was taken in Abu Dhabi which hosted the second match of Pakistan's one-day series against England.
A wily leg-spinner who has bagged 76 wickets in 12 tests, Shah has also played 15 one-dayers.