The album outsold its nearest competition by three-to-one to reach the summit, said the Official Charts.
It follows the star's previous chart-toppers, Dangerously in Love (2003), 4 (2011) and Lemonade (2016). She also made number one as part of Destiny's Child on the 2001 album, Survivor.
Renaissance was also the week's biggest-seller on vinyl.
The album has also topped the charts in Australia, Ireland and France, and is predicted to have the biggest opening week of the year in the US.
In the singles chart, the album's lead track Break My Soul reaches a new peak at number two - making it Beyoncé's highest-charting solo song since 2008's If I Were A Boy.
Two further songs from Renaissance debut inside the Top 20, with Cuff It at 14 and Alien Superstar landing at 16.
Chart rules stipulate that no more than three songs from the same artist can qualify for the Top 100 at the same time, otherwise the total would be higher.
Released last Friday, Renaissance has been praised for its fusion of six decades of black and queer dance music, from disco and funk, to Chicago house and Afro-beats, Jamaican dancehall and Detroit techno, via New York's ballroom scene.
"Renaissance is Beyoncé at her loca-motion best," wrote Jason King for NPR. "The kinetic album seems to rarely let up or stop, or take a break. It's bursting over with musical and sonic and lyrical details and ideas.
Rolling Stone's critic Mosi Reeves agreed, calling it: "a sprawling testament to the beauty of the dancefloor".
"Every song is an uptempo track that has the potential to joyously redefine dance floors, living rooms, and car singalongs in 2022 and beyond."