The South American nation recently became the world's second major hotspot for coronavirus cases.
Brazil currently has more than 347,300 confirmed cases, according to Johns Hopkins University data.
A White House spokeswoman said the restrictions would help ensure new cases are not brought into the US.
"Today's action will help ensure foreign nationals who have been in Brazil do not become a source of additional infections in our country," White House Press Secretary Kayleigh McEnany said in a statement.
Non-Americans who have been in Brazil in the two weeks before they request entry to the US will be denied that entry. The restriction will not affect trade between the two countries.
The suspension is to take effect on May 28 at 23:59 EDT (03:59 GMT).
The travel ban will not apply to US citizens, or to the spouse, parent, legal guardian, or child of a US citizen or lawful permanent resident, and most siblings under the age of 21.
"The potential for undetected transmission of the virus by infected individuals seeking to enter the United States from [Brazil] threatens the security of our transportation system and infrastructure and the national security," said the suspension order published by the White House on Sunday.
Earlier on Sunday, White House National security adviser Robert O'Brien told CBS "Face the Nation" that travel restriction for Brazil were expected shortly.
"We hope that'll be temporary, but because of the situation in Brazil, we're going to take every step necessary to protect the American people," Mr O'Brien said.
He added that "we'll take a look at the other countries on a country-by-country basis for sure".
US President Donald Trump suggested earlier this week that he was considering imposing a ban on travel from Brazil.
The US currently leads the world in coronavirus cases. It has over 1.6 million known cases and is nearing 100,000 deaths linked to the virus.