The 30-year-old was set to make his first appearance of this year's Championship after recovering from a similar injury.
He was named in the starting line-up earlier on Thursday, but was withdrawn having undergone scans after training.
Joe Marchant has been recalled and will train with the team on Friday.
England have said they will confirm the updated team to face Wales on the day of the match.
Before Tuilagi's injury, it was announced that Harry Randall will start at scrum-half, while fit-again Courtney Lawes was named as captain.
Tuilagi had been set to partner Henry Slade in the midfield.
His long history with injury has meant he has missed 79 possible matches since making his England debut in 2011 and the side has frequently struggled to find a suitable replacement in midfield.
Back after his most recent hamstring issue, Jones said Tuilagi "is a Test match winner", adding "you can't say that about too many players".
"We don't have any other centres like that with that weight, power and velocity with which they carry," Jones continued.
"He's unique for England."