The unbeaten 33-year-old is a two-time world champion, winning 31 of 32 professional fights.
He drew with American Deontay Wilder in the first of their three fights, before winning the second and third bouts.
Asked whether he would call time on his career after fighting Whyte at Wembley Stadium on 23 April, Fury said: "100%."
Speaking after his news conference to promote his upcoming bout, Fury said: "I'm a two-time undisputed world champion.
"[I have] £150m in the bank and nothing to prove to anybody."
No-show Whyte 'terrified' - Fury
Fury says compatriot Whyte is "terrified" after the Londoner missed the pair's news conference for their fight.
Whyte is the mandatory challenger to Fury's WBC title and is believed to be in preparation in Portugal.
"He's definitely shown the white flag in my estimation," said Fury.
Whyte is only getting 20% of the fight purse and there was speculation he was seeking to renegotiate terms before signing his contract last week.
But Fury's promoter Frank Warren argued the 33-year-old was getting a career-high pay-day.
Fury added: "He's given me that much more confidence it's unbelievable.
"He's terrified. The way he's going on about it, saying he doesn't want to go face-to-face, of course he doesn't, because he'll see that fire in my eyes and he'll think, 'I'm getting smashed to bits'.
"That's what it is - it's fear, it's terror. It's all of the above and I don't blame him for not being here today."