Police said the building's owner was detained, along with three others responsible for its construction.
Another five were charged with writing a false safety report for the building, which collapsed on Friday.
The cause of the disaster has not been confirmed by authorities.
On Saturday President Xi Jinping called for a search "at all cost" and ordered an investigation into the collapse in the city's Wangcheng District.
Six people have been rescued, but dozens are still trapped inside or unaccounted for, according to Changsha Mayor Zheng Jianxin.