In a video message, she said many people hoped the "time for words has now moved to the time for action".
She urged them to act "for our children and our children's children" and "rise above the politics of the moment".
The Queen added she took "great pride" in how her "dear late husband" Prince Philip promoted environmental issues.
The 95-year-old monarch had been scheduled to attend the United Nations conference in Glasgow. But she pre-recorded her address last week at Windsor Castle after being advised to rest following medical checks.