After a meeting that lasted for seven hours on Monday, both sides agreed to continue efforts to reduce tensions.
But there was no sign of a major breakthrough following the talks.
Around 100,000 Russian troops are believed to be near the border with Ukraine, prompting fears of an incursion and warnings from the West.
The US has said there would be sanctions if Russia were to attack Ukraine.
Russia, meanwhile, has warned the US not to "underestimate the risks" involved in Moscow's confrontation with the West.