Yesterday, the speaker ruled the motion was in order, opening the floor for the challenge.
The motion carries the signatures of nine opposition MPs, listing eight acts they say have allowed the prime minister's office to be called into question.
It says proposed constitutional amendments have been poorly considered and consulted.
It says the government's endorsement of income tax and the PACER Plus trade agreement were also poorly consulted and threaten the livelihoods of ni-Vanuatu and the wider economy.
The opposition also accuses the government of interfering in the independent operations of Air Vanuatu, the Shefa provincial government and the telecommunications regulator.
It also says it was questionable for the prime minister to harbour the former deputy prime minister, Joe Natuman, in government for three months after being convicted.
Natuman was ejected from parliament last month by the speaker.
He then resigned having received a two-year suspended sentence in March after pleading guilty to a charge of conspiracy to pervert the course of justice.
To be carried the motion will need to be endorsed by two thirds of parliament, which is unlikely with the government's commanding majority.
In December, Mr Salwai defeated a no confidence motion 37 votes to 13.