The accolade comes as the Vanuatu national captain prepares for the A-League Grand Final on Saturday against Melbourne City FC in Sydney.
Kaltak said his people will rally behind him for the final, with his village in Vanuatu watching it together in a community hall.
The team of the year includes the league's top scorer Jamie Maclaren, who will be hoping to his 24 strikes so far for Melbourne in the final, Australian World Cup player Craig Goodwin and Brazilian import Marcelo.
"When I found out this morning, I was extremely happy to have made the team of the season," he said.
"In my first season with the Mariners and as a professional footballer, being in the team is a big achievement for me. I'm extremely happy about it," Kaltak told the Mariners' website.
"My journey this season has been pretty crazy to be honest. I just do my best on the field for the team.
"At times it has been a bumpy ride, getting my three red cards. To then end up being in the team of the season, I reckon that isn't too bad."
At 29 years old, Kaltak has played a crucial role in his team's success and established himself as one of the finest central defenders in the league.
"It is noteworthy that this is his first season in the league and also his inaugural year as a professional player. Despite these factors, Kaltak has showcased immense skill, determination, and leadership, earning him widespread acclaim," his club said.
Last year Kaltak featured in a FIFA documentary about World Cup captains alongside Luka Modric and Thiago Silva.
Among Kaltak's team-mates is Dan Hall who is eligible to play for Fiji.
The grand final between Central Coast Mariners and Melbourne City will be televised live in Vanuatu.