The men's, women's and wheelchair events are scheduled to take place in England this autumn.
New Zealand Rugby League (NZRL) chief Greg Peters said it was "simply too unsafe" to take part.
Rugby Football League (RFL) chairman Simon Johnson called it a "selfish, parochial and cowardly decision".
"Rugby League World Cup organisers have bent over backwards to offer every assurance to the Australians and the Kiwis," Johnson told BBC Radio 4's Today programme.
"We are very unhappy with this decision and we are not prepared to take it lying down."