Guzmán, 62, was found guilty of 10 charges, including drug trafficking and money laundering, by a federal court in New York in February.
He escaped a Mexican jail through a tunnel in 2015, but was later arrested. He was extradited to the US in 2017.
He is a former head of the Sinaloa cartel, which officials say was the biggest supplier of drugs to the US.
Speaking through an interpreter just before Wednesday's sentencing, Guzmán said in the Brooklyn courtroom his confinement in the US had amounted to "torture" and said he had received an unfair trial.