In his first primetime address as president, Mr Biden said he would order states to make all adults eligible for vaccinations by 1 May.
Current measures prioritise people by age or health condition.
His speech comes a year to the day the outbreak was classified as a pandemic. Half a million Americans have died.
Last March, all US major sport was cancelled and actor Tom Hanks announced he had caught the virus. Then-President Donald Trump suspended travel from Europe, and also said he hoped the US would be open again for Easter.